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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 14:50:11   #13
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Review of Ribose

<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di ribosio>>

What is Ribose?
Ribose is a naturally occurring pentose sugar – a pentose sugar is a sugar made up of 5 carbon atoms, rather than the usual 6 carbon atoms found in glucose, fructose, sucrose etc. In animal studies supplementation with ribose has been demonstrated to enhance the recovery rate by increasing re-synthesis of ATP. Following intense or prolonged exercise the amount of ATP (energy molecules) within your muscles, may decrease by around 20-25%, and may take 48-72hours to fully return to normal hours. The idea between ribose supplementation is that it has the potential to speed up the recovery rate.

Who Should Consider Taking Ribose supplements? Ribose supplementation may be of benefit to athletes looking to enhance their recovery rate and sprint performance.

Summary of Ribose's Phyiological Effects:

May aid the re-synthesis of ATP following strenuos exercise
No evidence to support enhanced exercise performance

Ribose Research
Ribose plays an important role in the re-synthesis of ATP. Following supplementation, it is rapidly absorbed and is well tolerated at high doses (Gross et al., 1989). Ribose can then be metabolized through the pentose phosphate pathway to form glucose, or transported to muscle cells, where it can enhance ATP re-synthesis. Animal studies have demonstrated that when ribose is administered intravenously the rate of ATP synthesis increases (Zimmer, 1989; Zarzeczny et al., 2000; Zarzeczny et al., 2001).

Some researchers have seen positive results with ribose supplementation. For instance one study found that ribose had a positive effect on the final sprint of a sprint session (Raue et al., 2001) and another found that ribose supplementation helped to protect against a drop in the level of the adenine nucleotide pool (an indicator of ATP re-synthesis) (Gallagher et al., 2001). Hellsten et al., (2004) looked at the effect of ribose consumption (200mg per kg bodyweight) on the rate of adenine nucleotide re-synthesis. They found that following 15x10 sec sprints ATP levels returned to normal after 72 hours in the supplement group but were still lower in the placebo group. However, most research looking at the effect of oral ribose supplementation on human performance has failed to match these results.

At present, there is little evidence that the oral supplementation of ribose will enhance ATP re-synthesis or exercise performance in humans (Eijinde et al., 2001). Most human performance research looking at oral ribose supplementation has produced contradictory results. Research looking at the effect of ribose supplementation on cycle sprint exercise found that sprint performance increased in some subjects but there were not consistent increases in all of the 6 sprints (Bernardi and Ziegenfuss, 2003). In fact, sprint performance only significantly increased in one of the six sprints. They concluded that ribose supplementation did not have a consistent or substantial effect on anaerobic cycle sprinting.

Research by Kreider et al., (2003), looked at the effect of 10g of ribose (per day for 5 day) on cycle sprint performance. Supplementation with ribose had no positive effect on peak power, average power, fatigue, or lactate. However, the ribose group appeared to be able to maintain the same work rate in the second sprint, whereas there was a decrease in the work rate in the placebo group. The researchers concluded that oral ribose supplementation did not affect anaerobic exercise capacity in trained subjects.

Research looking at the effect of ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise (Eijinde et al., 2001), found that 16g of ribose was unable to enhance ATP re-synthesis immediately after, or 24 hours after exercise. They found that the consumption of 4 x 4g of ribose resulted in blood ribose levels that were too low to have an ergogenic effect. Interestingly, the ribose levels used in this study were higher than is normally recommended by nutritional manufacturers, and therefore the levels used by manufacturers are unlikely to have positive effects. They concluded that at these levels ribose does not have a beneficial impact on muscle ATP recovery and muscle force and power output, during repeated days of maximal intermittent exercise training.

In animal studies the level of plasma ribose required to elicit a positive effect is relatively high, at around 4-5mmol/l (Zarzeczny et al., 2000; Zarzeczny et al., 2001). However in humans it is not possible to achieve this level through oral consumption of ribose. Eijinde et al., (2001) found that the consumption of 4 x 4g of ribose only resulted in a plasma ribose level of <0.1mmol/l. They stated that this was conceivably too low to significantly enhance muscle ribose uptake to stimulate purine nucleotide synthesis (the process in which ATP is re-synthesized).

Is Ribose effective?
May enhance ATP re-syntesis following exercise but no evidence of enhanced sporting performance.

How to take Ribose?
At present research is not conclusive about the effects of ribose supplementation on human performance. To date research does not support the use of ribose as an effective performance enhancer. Research shows that the consumption of 16g of ribose, per day, is likely to be ineffective. Therefore the levels in most commercial formula are unlikely to be sufficient to elicit a positive effect.

References

Bernardi, J. M. and Ziegenfuss, T. N. (2003) Effects of ribose supplementation on repeated sprint performance in men. J Strength Cond Res. 17 (1), 47-52.

Eijinde, O. B., Leemputte, V. M., Brouns, F., Van Der Vuse, G. J., Labarque, V., Ramaekers, M., Van Schuylenberg, R., Verbessen, P., Wijnen, H. and Hespel, P. (2001) No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis. J Appl Physiol. 91, 2275-2281.

Gallagher, P. M., Williamson, D. L., Godard, M. P., Witter, J. R. and Trappe, S. W. (2001) Effects of ribose supplementation on adenine nucleotide concentration in skeletal muscle following high-intensity exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33, S167.

Gross, M., Reiter, S. and Zollner, N. (1989) Metabolism of D-ribose administered continuously to healthy persons and to patients with myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Klin Wochenschur. 67, 1205-1213.

Hellsten, Y., Skadhauge, L. and Bangsbo, J. (2004) Effect of ribose supplementation on resynthesis of adenine nucleotides after intense intermittent training in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 286 (1), R182-R188.

Kreider, R. B., Melton, C., Greenwood, M., Rasmussen, C., Lundberg, J. and Almada, A. (2003) Effects of oral D-ribose supplementation on anerobic capacity and selected metabolic markers in healthy males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 13 (1), 76-86.

Raue, U., Gallagher, P. M., Williamson, D. L., Godard, M. P. and Trappe, S. W. (2001) Effects of ribose supplementation on performance during repeated high-intensity cycle sprints. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 33, S44.

Zarzeczny, R., Brault, J., Abraham, K., Hancock, C. and Terjung, R. L. (2000) Purine salvage is not reduced during recovery following intense contractions. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 32 (Abstract), S273.

Zarzeczny, R., Brault, J. J., Abraham, K. A., Hancock, C. R., Terjung, R. L. (2001) Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. J Appl Physiol. 91 (4), 1775-1781.

Zimmer, H-G., Martins, P. A. and Marshner, G. (1989) Myocardial infarction in rats: effects of maetabolic and pharmacological interventions. Basic Res Cardiol. 84, 332-343.

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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 14:54:20   #14
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Review of Whey Protein

<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di whey protein>>

What is Whey Protein?
Whey protein is a derivative of milk. Milk consists of two types of protein: 1) Whey, and 2) Casein. Both casein and whey protein have traditionally been used by body builders, and strength athletes alike, to increase the rate of protein synthesis (muscle building), decrease the rate of catabolism of muscle mass (muscle breakdown), and consequently to improve the rate of recovery following exercise.

Who Should Consider Taking Whey Protein?
Any athlete looking to increase their lean muscle size, improve their rate of recovery, and improve immune health, and reduce body fat levels may benefit from whey protein.

Summary of Whey Proteins Phyiological Effects:

Increases levels of muscular growth and recovery
Reduction in cortisol levels
Increases strength gains

Protein Research
Of the two types of protein (whey and casein), whey protein has been demonstrated to have the greater benefit on muscle growth and recovery after exercise and helps to lower body fat levels (Lands et al., 1999). The increased levels of muscle growth are likely to be as a result of an increased rate of protein synthesis and due to a reduction in the levels of cortisol (Markus et al., 2000). Cortisol is a stress hormone, released during periods of physical or mental stress. It is known to have a negative effect on muscle growth by increasing the rate of catabolism (muscle breakdown). This is of particular concern to bodybuilding/strength athletes since it will limit the effectiveness of training programmes by lowering potential gains in muscle.

There are two main types of whey protein: 1) whey concentrate, and; 2) whey isolate. Whey concentrate is just the basic form of whey after it has been separated from casein. Whey isolate normally goes through a special filtration process in order to increase the concentration of protein. Typically whey concentrate may contain 70-80% protein whereas whey isolate would normally contain at least 90% protein, with a much lower level of carbohydrate and fat than whey concentrate. Whey isolate will also have a higher level of branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs have been demonstrated to be effective at helping to maintain and increase muscle mass.

Some whey isolate will also contain partially pre-digested proteins – these have been pre-digested by a process of enzymatic hydrolisation – which are more readily absorbed into the blood stream and will therefore reach the muscles more quickly.

Whey protein isolate has proved particularly effective at promoting gains in muscle mass. Subjects were observed to gain 8 pounds more lean muscle than when using whey isolate than subjects using concentrate (Cribb et al., 2002).


Is whey protein effective?
Whey Protein has proven to be effective at increasing muscle size, muscle strength gains, and recovery from exercise.

How to take Protein?
It is generally recommended that bodybuilders/strength training athletes should be consuming 1.5-2.0g of protein per kg of bodyweight. Therefore if you weigh 100kg, your protein needs would be 150-250g of protein per day. If your diet provides 100g of protein then you should be consuming an additional 50-100g of protein per day. This can easily be achieved through supplementing your diet with whey concentrate or isolate. Protein should be consumed just before a workout (30-60mins before) and immediately afterwards (within 60mins) since protein supplementation close to training has a greater muscle building effect (Levenhagen et al., 2002).

When not training athletes can help to keep the body in a positive growth state by consuming approximately 25g of protein (the body cannot utilise more than 25g at one time) every 2-3hours. Many athletes like to take protein last thing at night to help to promote muscle growth overnight and to reduce muscle breakdown. Since whey isolate and concentrate are fully absorbed and utilised within 1-2 hours of drinking they are not necessarily a good source of protein to take overnight. Consider using a slower digesting protein overnight such as casein which will keep protein levels elevated for longer in the blood.

References

Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Hayes, A. and Carey, F. (2002) The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Medicine and science in Sports and Exercise. 34, S1688.

Lands, L. C., Grey, V. L. and Smountas, A. A. (1999) Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 87, 1381-1385.

Levenhagen, D. K., Carr, C., Carlson, M. G., Maron, D. J., Borel, M. J. and Flakoll, P. J. (2002) Postexercise protein intake enhances whole body and leg protein accretion in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34, 828-837.

Markus, C. R., Olivier, B., Panhuysen, G. E. M., Gugten, J. V. D., Alles, M. S., Tuiten, A., Westenberg, H. G. M., Fekkes, D., Koppeschaar, H. F. and De Haan, E. E. H. F. (2000) The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71, 1536-1544.
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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 14:58:41   #15
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Review of ZMA

<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di ZMA>>

What is ZMA?
ZMA stands for Zinc l-monomethionine aspartate and is a special blend of: Zinc 30mg (as l-monmethionine and aspartate), Magnesium 450mg (as aspartate), and Vitamin B6 10.5mg (as pyridoxine HCL). ZMA is useful for all athletes as it helps to guard against depletion, of these three important minerals, and vitamins, that often occurs following intense or prolonged training.

Who Should Consider Taking ZMA supplements?
Anyone looking to improve their rate of recovery, reduce the risk of overtraining, increase muscle size and strength should benefit from ZMA supplements.

Summary of ZMA's Phyiological Effects:

Significantly increases the level of free testosterone
Prevents IGF-1 (Insulin growth factor) levels from decreasing during intense training
Increases strength gains
Reduces muscle cramps
Improves recovery

ZMA Research
This special combination of vitamins and minerals has been demonstrated to prevent the exercise induced drop in testosterone levels that often occurs following intense periods of training (Brilla and Conte, 1999). Brilla and Conte, 1999, studied the effect of ZMA on American footballers. The footballers were divided into two groups, one taking ZMA and one took a "dummy" (placebo) supplement that would have no physiological effect. The ZMA group showed a 33.5% increase in free testosterone and a 32.4% increase in total testosterone levels whereas there was a decrease in testosterone levels in the placebo group. The ZMA group also showed a 3.6% increase in the levels of IGF-1 (insulin growth factor) whereas IGF-1 levels decreased by 21.5% in the placebo group.

The positive effects on hormone levels in the ZMA group led to an 11.6% increase in strength over the 8 weeks of the study. This was a 252% greater gain in strength than was experienced in the placebo group. It is the positive effects on maintaining the hormone levels following intense training that make ZMA an appealing supplement for athletes. This should help to improve recovery between sessions and help to reduce the risk of overtraining.

It should also be noted that Zinc, Magnesium, and Vitamin B6 all have positive effects on mood and may help to alleviate the low feeling sometimes experienced during heavy training.

Many companies claim to have ZMA products, but unless they contain the specific types, shown above, of the minerals zinc and magnesium and vitamin B6 and in the above dose specification; then they are not using the correct formulation that was used in the above research and should not be making claims comparing their products to the original

Is ZMA effective?
ZMA has proven to be effective at increasing strength gains, free testosterone levels, and recovery from exercise.

How to take ZMA?
It is recommended that you take the above dose of ZMA last thing at night on an empty stomach.

References

Brilla, L. R. and Conte, V. (1999) A novel zinc and magnesium formulation (ZMA) increases anabolic hormones and strength in athletes. Medicine and Science in sports and Exercise, 31, 483.
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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 15:27:23   #16
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Review of Caffeine

<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di caffeina>>

What is Caffeine?
Caffeine is the active substance (a methylxanthine) found in tea, coffee and guarana. Caffeine has long been considered an ergogenic aid capable of improving physical performance. It works by activating the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. This has led to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) setting an upper limit for the legal use of caffei


Who Should Consider Taking Caffeine supplements?
Because of the positive effect that caffeine has on fat metabolism, endurance athletes can use it to enhance endurance race performance. Caffeine may also prove beneficial during short intense efforts such as weight training, however research has been, generally, inconclusive as to whether caffeine is beneficial to strength/power athletes. It should be noted that caffeine consumption is best reserved for competition since prolonged use reduces the beneficial effects of caffeine. Because caffeine acts as a potent thermogenic (fat burner) it may also prove useful for weight loss.

Summary of Caffeine's Phyiological Effects:

Enhanced endurance exercise performance
Enhanced sprint/short-term exercise performance
Enhanced metabolic rate
Increased rate of fat metabolism
Enhanced fat loss
Improved mental function in the short term

Caffeine Research
Research has demonstrated that caffeine, improves 1500m run performance by approximately 4.2secs (Wiles et al.,1992) as well as long term endurance performance (Costil et al., 1977; Costil et al., 1978; Ivy, 1979; McNaughton, 1987). The improved endurance performance is due primarily to a significant increase in the level of free fatty acids in blood plasma (Bucci, 1993). The increased levels of free fatty acids in the blood would enhance the ability to use free fatty acids as fuel, and thus spares valuable carbohydrate stores. It should be noted that greater benefits are achieved if you are unaccustomed to consuming caffeine products (Spriet, 1995).

Caffeine is believed to work by: 1) activating the central and sympathetic nervous system; 2) improving excitation of active muscle; 3) increasing the secretion of catecholamines (stress hormones which increase the release of free fatty acids in the blood); 4) by stimulating an increase in the rate of fat metabolism which helps to preserve the glycogen stores, and; 5) by increase in potassium accumulation in the blood.

Research has also demonstrated that caffeine can enhance performance during short term, high intensity exercise (Doherty, 1998) and therefore may be beneficial for strength/power athletes as well as endurance athletes.

Because caffeine enhances fat burning, within our body, there has been much interest into whether it may promote fat loss. Research has shown that caffeine consumption before exercise enhances fat burning during exercise by around 30% (Spriet, 1995) as well as increasing the amount of calories burned after exercise (Chad and Quigley, 1989).

Is Caffeine effective?
Research has demonstrated that caffeine is effective at enhancing both endurance and short term exercise performance. It can also enhance mental abilities, such as mental focus and reaction time, and is a potent thermogenic that increases fat burning and may aid weight loss. However, some people can suffer negative side effects such as heart palpitations and nervousness.

How to take Caffeine?
Firstly, it is important to note that you will not gain the same benefits from the consumption of coffee as from taking a caffeine supplement. The reason for this appears to be due to another, as yet unknown substance, within coffee, that inhibits the positive effects of caffeine. A general recommendation to improve endurance, or power, performance would be to consume 150-200mg of caffeine 30-60 minutes prior to competition – this will not result in a positive doping result (unless you weigh less than 35kg!). It should be noted that athletes who regularly consume large quantities of caffeine will gain less of a benefit from its consumption due to a decreased physiological response. Also some athletes may suffer with increased anxiety levels following caffeine supplementation and therefore, for those athletes, any positive effect may be outweighed by the negative effects. Therefore athletes intending on using caffeine for an important race should check their response to caffeine in a training situation before using it in competition.

For weight loss, consider using 150-200 milligrams every 4-5 hours. For, best results combine with regular exercise (at least 3 times per week). Don’t consume high levels of caffeine for more then 2-3 weeks at a time. Long term caffeine use should be avoided since caffeine consumption causes an increase in the levels of stress hormones. Long term exposure to high stress hormone levels will leave you feeling drained and run down. If you combine this with heavy training you put yourself at risk of over-training.

References

Bucci, L. (1993) Nutrients as ergogenic aids for sports and exercise. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press.

Chad, K. and Quigley, B. (1989) The effects of substrate utilisation, manipulated by caffeine, on post-exercise oxygen consumption in untrained female subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 59, 48-54.

Costill, D. L., Coyle, E. F., Dalsky, G., Evans, W., Fink, W. and Hoopes, D. (1977) Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 43, 695-699.

Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P. and Fink, W. J. (1978) Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 10, 155-158.

Doherty, M. (1998) The effects of caffeine on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and short-term running performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 8, 95-104.

Ivy, J. L., Costill, D. L., Fink, W. J. and Lower, R. W. (1979) Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feeding on endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 11, 6-11.

McNaughton, L. (1987) Two levels of caffeine ingestion on blood lactate and free fatty acid responses during incremental exercise. Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport. 58, 255-259.

Spriet, L. L. (1995) Caffeine and performance. International Jounal of Sport Nutrition. 5, S84-99.

Wiles, J. D., Bird, S. R., Hopkins, B. A. and Riley, B. A. (1992) Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (2), 116-120.
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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 15:37:31   #17
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Review of Carnosine

<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di carnosina>>

What is Carnosine?
Carnosine, a naturally occuring histamine containing compound, is a potent antioxidant found in particualrly high concentrations in the heart, the brain and skeletal muscles. Carnosine has a powerful protective effect in the brain and is also believed to enhance exercise performance by buffering the build up of hydrogen ions within muscle cells.

Who Should Consider Taking Carnosine?
Carnosine may be of benefit to people looking to enhance exercise performance and to reduce the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Carnosine is believed to have positive effects on ageing and animal studie have found it may slow the ageing process. Since acrnosine is found exclusively in animal tissues it should be especially beneficial for vegetarians.

Summary of Carnosine's Physiological Effects:

Acts as an antioxidant
Binds with, and removes, toxic metals
Enhances cellular lifespan
Reduces damage to DNA
Protects against oxidation of "bad" LDL cholesterol
Has a protective effect on the brain
Reduces the build up of hydrogen ions
Improves contraction of cardiac muscle cells

Carnosine Research
Carnosine has been shown to have many health benefits. It acts as an antixidant, it chelates (binds with) toxic metals - transporting them out of the body, and buffers against the build up of damaging hydrogen ions (Holliday and McFarland, 2000, Hipkiss, A. R. 2006). Not only was Carnosine found to enhance cellular lifespan it also rejuvenated ageing cells (Holliday and McFarland, 2000, Hipkiss et al., 2001).

Researchers have found that Carnosine can also extend the lifespan in human cell cultures, and significantly reduced damage to telomeric DNA (Shao, et al., 2004). In addition, Carnosine appears to protect the lining of arteries from furring up by inhibiting the oxidation of the bad "LDL" cholesterol (Decker et al., 2001; Seifulla et al., 2005).

Carnosine is believed to have a powerful protective effect on the brain by protecting against damage to the blood vessels of the brain and may help to reduce the build up of plaques within the brain (Salah et al., 2000).

Carnosine is found mainly in fast-twitch muscle fibres (Type II fibres) and is believed to play a role in enhancing maximal exercise performance. One positive effect that Carnosine has on exercise performance is increased buffering of the build up of hydrogen ions when lactic acid is formed (Holliday and McFarland, 2000;Begum et al., 2005). Recent research (Suzuki et al., 2006) found that Carnosine significantly enhanced the buffering capacity of the blood. As well as buffering increased hydrogen ion concentration Carnosine also regulates enzyme activity and inhibits the breakdown of proteins. By protecting against protein breakdown Carnosine should help to enhance post exercise recovery.

Research has shown that Carnosine levels were double the level in resistance trained individuals, compared with controls (Tallon et al., 2005), indicating the importance of having adequate Carnosine levels during maximal exercise.

Carnosine has also been demonstrated to improve the function of cardiac muscle cells (Roberts et al., 2000; Salah et al., 2000). This is thought to be mainly due to its regulation of calcium concentrations within cardiac muscle cells.

Is Carnosine effective?
Research shows many positive health effects associated with Carnosine. It should alsoprove beneficial to athletes, however, further research is needed before this can be fully verified.

How to take Carnosine?
A general recommendation is to consume around 200-400mg daily, in a divided dose.

References (To Be Completed)

Begum et al., 2005

Decker et al., 2001

Hipkiss et al., 2001

Hipkiss, A. R. 2006

Holliday and McFarland, 2000

Roberts et al., 2000

Salah et al., 2000

Seifulla et al., 2005

Shao, et al., 2004

Suzuki et al., 2006

Tallon et al., 2005
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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 15:52:02   #18
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Review of Coq10

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What is CoQ10?
Coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) is a powerful antioxidant that protects against the damaging effects of free-radicals. Free-radicals are the cell damaging particles that are by products of metabolic processes within the body, particular oxidation. CoQ10 is found in every cell in the human body and as such is also called ubiquinone, which literally means everywhere. CoQ10 is present naturally in our diet, but only in small amounts, in fish and meat.

Who Should Consider Taking Co Q10 supplements?
CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may be beneficial to anybody who takes part in regular aerobic exercise (runners, swimmers, cyclists, footballers etc.).

Summary of CoQ10's Physiological Effects:

Powerful antioxidant protecting against cellular damage by free-radicals
Can improve heart function
May lower blood pressure

Co Q10 Research
Co-Q10 plays an important role in the transfer of energy from food and is also known to improve the transport of oxygen into cells. It is found in particularly high levels in the cells of the heart muscle. As we age the level of CoQ10 declines. Also, among patients suffering with congenital heart disease the level of Co-Q10 within the heart muscle is significantly lower than is found in healthy individuals of the same age.

CoQ10 has been used to treat congestive heart failure (Morisco et al., 1993) and has also been demonstrated to have a positive effect by reducing blood pressure (Gaby, 1996). It should be noted that congestive heart patients taking Co-Q10 should not discontinue use of CoQ10 supplements unless advised by a doctor or physician to do so.

It is because of the positive effect on heart function, and Co-Q10's ability to increase oxygen transport into cells, that has made it a popular supplement with endurance athletes.

Is CoQ10 effective?
Co-Q10 has proved to be beneficial for the treatment of congestive heart patients but there it is unclear as to whether it would be of benefit to normal healthy individuals.

How to take Co Q10?
It is generally recommended that athletes take 30-100mg of CoQ10 per day. Since Co-Q10 is fat soluble it is best taken with meals to help to improve the rate of its absorption.

References

Gaby, A. R. (1996) The role of coenzyme Q10 in clinical medicine: part II. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and infertility. Alternative Medicine Reviews. 1, 168-175.

Morisco, C., Trimarco, B. and Condorelli, M. (1993) Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study. Clinical investigations. 71, S134-136.
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Vecchio 16-07-2011, 18:38:38   #19
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Vitamine & Minerali

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Vitamina A

Necessaria per una buona vista, specie di notte. Svolge un'azione protettiva delle mucose e degli epiteti in genere, concorrendo a potenziarne il valore di barriera alle infezioni. La vitamina A inoltre favorisce la crescita, favorendo lo sviluppo scheletrico.

Vitamina D

Aiuta l’organismo ad utilizzare il calcio e il fosforo per rafforzare ossa e denti.Regola il bilancio di calcio dell'organismo aumentando il livello ematico attraverso un aumento dell'assorbimento intestinale.

Vitamina E

Proprietà antiossidanti protettive; importante per cuore e circolazione, nervi, muscoli e globuli rossi. Influisce sulla stabilizzazione delle membrane cellulari e dei depositi di grasso.

Vitamina K

La vitamina K ha azione antiemorragica, favorendo la produzione dei fattori di coagulazione da parte del fegato.

Vitamina B1

Ha un ruolo essenziale nel metabolismo dei carboidrati, intervenendo in decine di reazioni a catena.

Vitamina B2

Viene assorbita nell'intestino tenue e trasportata nel fegato e in altri tessuti, dove si trasforma in coenzima Flavinmono nucleotide (FMN) e Flavindinucleotide (FAD) intervenendo in reazioni di ossidoriduzione importanti nel quadro metabolico energetico cellulare.

Vitamina B6

Utile per pelle e nervi sani. Partecipa al metabolismo dei glucidi e degli acidi grassi essenziali, degli aminoacidi e di sostanze azotate.

Vitamina B12

E' necessaria soprattutto nella produzione di globuli rossi , di conseguenza il segno più evidente della sua carenza è una forma di anemia.

Acido pantotenico

Essenziale per il rilascio di energia derivante dal cibo, necessaria per una crescita sana e per la produzione di anticorpi.

Acido folico

Particolarmente importante come integratore per le donne in età feconda; essenziale per la crescita e lariproduzione delle cellule, in particolare dei globuli rossi. Aiuta a mantenere normali livelli di omocisteina.

Biotina

Svolge un ruolo fondamentale nel metabolismo di lipidi, glucidi e proteine ed in particolare è un coenzima in diverse carbossilasi.

Vitamina PP

Partecipa come coenzima alla catena respiratoria, e agisce inoltre da cofattore nell'ossidazione degli acidi grassi ed in un gran numero di reazioni di ossidoriduzione con la funzione di cedere o acquistare ioni idrogeno.

Vitamina C

Aiuta i globuli bianchi a sconfiggere le infezioni. Necessaria anche per una pelle sana, miglioral’assorbimento del ferro di origine non-alimentare. Impedisce l'ossidazione dei tessuti corporei bloccando i radicali liberi dell'ossigeno.

Beta Carotene

Antiossidante che contribuisce a ‘spazzare’ i radicali liberi; in caso di necessità, viene convertito in vitamina A dall’organismo.

Tiamina

Importante per il rilascio di energia dai carboidrati; favorisce il funzionamento del sistema nervoso.

Riboflavina

Benefica per la vista; necessaria per la conversione di proteine, grassi e carboidrati in energia.

Niacina

Vitale per il rilascio dell’energia in tessuti e cellule. Aiuta a mantenere sani sistema nervoso e apparatodigerente.



10 minerali essenziali:

Calcio

Il minerale più abbondante nell’organismo, mantiene le ossa forti e i denti sani; necessario per il buon funzionamento di nervi e muscoli.

Fosforo

Necessario per una normale struttura ossea e per il suo mantenimento; essenziale per l’assorbimento del glucosio e per la produzione di energia.

Ferro

Essenziale per il trasporto dell’ossigeno attraverso l’emoglobina dei globuli rossi.

Magnesio

Essenziale per il funzionamento di nervi e muscoli e per il rilascio dell’energia. Benefico per i sistemi riproduttivo e immunitario. Serve anche al recupero e al rinnovamento dei tessuti.

Iodio

Aiuta a mantenere la funzione della tiroide.

Rame

Componente (con zinco e manganese) di un sistema enzimatico antiossidante. Necessario per la formazione della melanina e per il metabolismo del ferro.

Manganese

Componente (con zinco e rame) di un sistema enzimatico antiossidante. Necessario per ossa sane e per un efficiente sistema nervoso.

Cromo

Coadiuva il bilanciamento dello zucchero nel sangue.

Selenio

Opera insieme alla vitamina E come antiossidante nella neutralizzazione dei radicali liberi.

Zinco

Benefico per i sistemi riproduttivo e immunitario. Serve anche al recupero e al rinnovo dei tessuti.

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Ultima modifica di WNC2 : 09-08-2011 alle ore 14:45:23
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